Tuesday, 21 December 2010


I will post something on the complexity of plant cells and how they seem to defy the theory of Evolution because of their sheer intricacy. I cannot see how such precise interlocking processes can possibly have arisen by chance. All of the components must have arisen at the same time or else the cell could not function.

Let us look at the details.

I said in the blog on Animal Cells that I did not consider it possible that such complexity could arrive by undirected, blind chance. I take the same position here.
Let us look for a moment at this diagram of a simple plant cell, which is so small that it cannot be seen with the unaided naked eye.

 Look how intricate it is. Let us examine it in detail.

 Cell Walls are made of cellulose and are only found around the cells of plants. What purpose do they serve? Cellulose does not dissolve in water for a particular reason. Plants are out in the rain, so it is important that the walls of the cells do not dissolve in water and wash the contents of the cell away Hence the clever use of cellulose. But who thought of that?
But there is even more, Cell Wall are really cleverly constructed. There are small holes in the cell wall that let nutrients into the cell and allow waste products to pass out. One wonders how the cell wall discriminates what should pass in and out. But there is a problem. Water can also be lost through these small holes. But even when the plant cell loses water, the basic shape of the plant is maintained by the cell walls. Therefore, even when a plant starts to droop due to the water loss, once water is added it will fully recover.

Next. The Cell Membrane.  The cell membrane allows waste material to leave the cell and essential materials to enter. In short, the cell membrane is like a barrier between the inside of the cell and the outside. It ensures that the chemical surroundings on both sides of the cell can be different. Cleverly, therefore, it regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell.

Third. The Cell Vacuole. The main job of the vacuole is to store water, nutrients, and other substances for future use. In plant cells the vacuoles tend to be larger because plants receive large quantities of water. This water collects in cell vacuoles helping to make the plant rigid. In short each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds which the cell needs, helps in plant growth, and plays an important role in the structure of the plant.

Turning now to The Cytoplasm. This is the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus. It has several important functions: to distribute oxygen and food (nutrients) to other parts of the cell; to support all parts within the cell; to store energy, and various salts. It therefore, contains nutrients and also assists in dissolving waste. Many biologists see the cytoplasm as the workhorse of the cell.

Fifth. The Golgi Complex. If you think of the Post Office and the enormous volume of mail it handles, packaging, placing it on the right delivery trucks, and finally delivering the letter or package to your door, then you gave some idea what the Golgi Body does. Golgi bodies are found in both plant and animal cells, they package and ship proteins throughout the cell.

Up to now, one just sits back in sheer amazement at just how intricate the whole organisation is of a living Plant Cell. Surely, such could not have arisen by blind chance. What do you think?

The Lysosome  Every factory, and the cell is like a factory, produces waste. Consequently, it requires a garbage disposal system. The Lysosomes fulfill this role. They are constantly patrolling the cell and cleaning up the waste at the same time. Sometimes the cell is invaded by other organisms. It is the job of the Lysosomes to kill and dispose of these intruders.

Let us have a look now at the Endoplasmic Reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum  is respsonsible for the production of  protein and lipids (organic compounds of various sorts), which it then directs their movement to various parts of the cell, such as to the Golgi Apparatus, the Plasma Membrane, and the Lysosomes.

Quite a complicated job, eh! for something which is supposed to have arisen out of unintelligence.

Now to the Mitochondria. The Mitochondria is like a battery. It provides all the energy the cell needs to carry out its operations.

The Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts produce food for the  cell. They are extremely efficient. Think of the solar panels now being installed in various houses and you have some inkling what the chloroplasts do. The chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, the green pigment that is needed for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process which, green plants use to convert the energy from sunlight into sugar and starch. These feed the plant. Fortunately for us, this process also releases Oxygen and absorbs Carbon Dioxide.

Now we get to the real powerhouses and control centres.

First, The Nucleus.  The nucleus regulates all the activity of the cell. Within the nucleus are the chromosomes. The chromosomes are threadlike structures which carry the genes. So the nucleus contains all the information that directs, the growth of the plant, also how it will reproduce, and based on the information about its heredity, what it will actually look like.

Next  The Nucleolus. Is a highly specialized part of the cell. It contains information relating to the manufacture of the key components of the cell. I do not want to make this a long-winded discussion. But if you are interested you might look up why the Nucleolus has been described as ‘the brain of the cell’

Well, that should do for now.

Again, my only purpose is not to give a biology lesson. Others can do that better than I can. All I wanted to show is why I cannot possibly accept that all living things have arrived by unintelligent, chaotic, chance. That is why I selected the basic unit to show how complex it is.

If anyone can show me how all of this can have arisen from unintelligence, please comment on my blog.

Next time I shall look at some extracts from my MA that discuss the paranormal in Victorian Literature.

1.Picture Credit bynyaa-birdles-perch
2. Wikipi-media. org From a drawing by Robert Hooke, 'Micrographia' using in 1665

1 comment:

  1. This reminds me of a child with wide open eyes who discovers the surrounding world, seeing plants, animals, sky etc. child realizes that they exist.
    They exist because God exists.He exists via the laws in nature, they are reasonable simply because He is the reasonable force everywhere.
    The expression "by chance" or "By accident" is due to a lack of information. Nothing comes by accident. There is reason everywhere, even destruction has its place.