Friday, 31 December 2010



I hesitated long before I put this theory to the test of practice. I well knew that I risked death; for any drug that so potently controlled and shook the very Fortress of identity might …. utterly blot out that …which I looked to it to change…. With a strange glow of courage drank off the potion.

The most racking pangs succeeded: a  grinding in the bones; deadly nausea, and a horror of the spirit that cannot be exceeded at the hour of birth or death … There was something strange in my sensations … I felt younger, lighter, happier in body …I knew myself at the breath of this new life to be more wicked …

I saw for the first time the appearance of Edward Hyde. …. It came about that Edward Hyde was so much smaller, slighter, and younger than Henry Jekyll.

This extract from Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson (1886) reveals a number of things. First, the nature of the Victorian Consciousness; second the search for  what constitutes the nature of man; third the assumption that such things, as discussed in earlier Posts, were taken on board by the Victorians, as real.

In that sense then, as my later discussions of several Victorian novelists will show, such novels at one level were stories, but on a deeper level were like expositions, presentations of ideas that the Victorians believed.

In this blog I intend to explore the phenomena of MULTIPLE PERSONALITIES. 

Multiple Personality Disorder  is a serious and recurring mental and emotional disorder.  A person with this condition will display two or more distinct personalities. Each separate identity has its own way  of viewing and understanding the world. Each personality may have its own unique name. and habits.
 These distinct personalities from time to time take over  that person's behaviour. It is as iif several people were at different times sharing the same body. Often the victim of Multiple Personality Syndrome is not aware of the alternate personalities, called alters, inside themselves. As a result  they cannot account for blocks of time when these other identities control their  memory, thinking, and behaviour.
This phenomena began to surface more prominently in the Victorian era. There is a reason for this. as we shall see. Suffice to say at the moment that THE MAGNETISERS were the first to notice that during the trance state various personalities, quite different from the personality of their subjects, began to emerge. Hence with the widespread publicity concerning Magnetism, and Mesmerism, the notion of Multiple Personalities was also noised abroad. This also entered the Victorian Consciousness. I shall deal with this when we examine Bulwer Lytton's 'A Strange Story'  (1862).

Left Lord Edward Bulwer Lytton, author of 'A Strange Story'

So, let us take up the idea of Multiple Personalities  with some background.
The psychological phenomena of Multiple Personalities were well known to the "magnetizers" by the end of the 18th, and the beginning of the 19th century. The experiences of the  Marquis de Puységur (1751-1825), are relevant at this point.

Leaving aside his unusual and very interesting experiments with the Magnetising of a tree and various patients, we need to comment concerning his semi-illiterate and barely articulate gardener. He, the Marquis, a man of culture and refinement states that when he placed his gardener , a semi-articulate man, in a Mesmeric trance, Lo and Behold! a different personality emerged. In his letters, the Marquis reports,  "It is from this simple man ...  that I derive instruction and knowledge." Moreover, when the peasant was "in the magnetic state, he is no longer a peasant who can hardly utter a single sentence" His personality completely changed. Even some sort of clairvoyant state manifested itself. For, "I need not speak; I have only to think before him, when he instantly understands and answers me." The peasant had his eyes shut the whole time, nevertheless, "Should anybody come into the room, he sees him, if I desire it" but not unless the Marquis allowed him to. 

But that was not all. The experiences of the Marquis de Puysegur are well worth following up for they show the state of play, regarding Multiple Personalities that were beginning to emerge.

Other writers in the 19th century were beginning to report the emergence of what they believed to be distinct personalities. They noticed that these personalities seemed to emerge during the Magnetised state, when the subject entered a strange 'sleeping' state. Jean Gros in 1855 commented:

We have seen in the same individual two simultaneous streams of thought: the one which formed the ordinary person, the other which occurred outside of him. We are in the presence of only the second person [in somnambulism]. The other remains asleep, exhausted. Because of this, it is impossible for the ordinary person to remember upon awakening anything of what has taken place during his attack (access). Such is the nature of the perfect somnambulism.

Later, Taine reported in 1878 that persons in the Magnetised, Mesmeric, or as it came to be called, Hypnotised State could produce "automatic writing". What Taine seemed to detect was that within the same individual were located at the same time the  existence in one and the same individual of "two thoughts, two wills, two distinct actions, the one of which he is aware, the other of which he is not aware and which he ascribes to invisible beings.".

Pierre Janet (1859-1947) whose writings influenced the famous C.J. Jung was a diligent investigator in the field of Hypnosis (Mesmerism, Magnetic Slumber) and his work is of vital interest to those concerned with the Victorian exploration of Consciousness and the Human Mind.

Janet first encountered Multiple Personality Phenomena during his work with a patient, Lucie, beginning in 1886. During the Magnetised State Lucie could perform several actions and perceive a number of sensations apparently unconsciously. During this State  Janet suggested that she would come to see him again in eight days time. Once out of the trance, she neither remembered this nor any other aspect of the session. Nevertheless, she did, come to see him on the appointed date.

Janet also taught Lucie 'automatic writing' while in the trance state. He then succeeded in having her do this during normal Consciousness. Janet had someone else distract  Lucie's attention, while he softly suggested to her that she take a pencil and paper and write. While Lucie concentrated on the conversation with the third person, her right hand answered Janet's questions. The writing she produced was signed "Adriene." Janet concluded that it was this mysterious Adrienne who remembered the previous  suggestions when Lucie was in the Mesmerised state, and it was she who and carried them out. Later, through  automatic writing, Adrienne revealed to Janet  that she had come at his suggestion and that Lucie knew nothing about it.

But what was Lucie's condition during the Mesmeric (hypnotic) condition? 

The normal bodily senses seem to have departed from her entire body. 

When Janet pinched her arm hard she showed absolutely no reaction. However, later, through Automatic Writing Adrienne  communicated to Janet  that  everything that Lucie did not feel, Adrienne did.

Janet's work with Lucie continued and in 1889 he discovered yet another altered state of consciousness, between Lucie and Adrienne. He remarked that Lucie's consciousness seemed to be composed of three parallel streams. He named them "Lucie 1," "Lucie 2," and "Lucie 3" (as he then called Adrienne). When Lucie 1 was Mesmerised and entered the first trance stage, Lucie1 disappeared and Lucie 2 appeared. In this state, Lucie 2 remembered the periods when she was the dominant personality and also everything Lucie 1 had experienced. As Lucie went deeper Lucie 2 disappeared and Lucie 3 (i.e., Adrienne) appeared. Adrienne was able to remember experiences from all three personality states.

Left A Mesmerist gets to work on a female subject in 1887

Janet's exploration of Consciousness went on. During his investigations he began to comment that the prevailing view of the Human Mind was wrong. In what way?

The prevailing view was that everyday personality was the normal one. Therefore, whatever manifested during the Mesmeric State was considered to be abnormal. Janet took the opposite view and offered his work with Marceline as an example. For example, his patient Marceline during normal consciousness was usually very depressed  and had numerous, very serious conditions. These included insensitivity  to pain or bodily sensations. 

 By contrast in her Mesmerised state she was a cheerful and active woman who had complete sensory control (Janet, 1910). Janet concluded that this healthier, but Mesmerised State, was the true woman. He speculated that this Mesmerised condition corresponded to the natural state of Marceline in her childhood, before she became ill. 

We need to move on a little and look at one or two more cases. I trust I have established that the Victorian exploration of Consciousness was a widespread and influential pre-occupation. I repeat that exploring the Victorian Consciousness will enable us more easily to IDENTIFY WITH and not simply read the Victorian novelists.

I must state that in 1842 the eminent physician, James Braid, rejected the term Animal Magnetism, or Mesmerism, and replaced it with the term Hypnotism. Although, to my mind there was little difference between these concepts, I shall from now on refer to it as either Mesmerism or Magnetism.

I admit the use of the terms, Mesmerism, or Magnetism is a personal preference. Quite simply, I think it captures the SPIRIT of the Victorian novel much more.

Moving on a little later, in The Early 1880s a landmark case of the treatment of Multiple Personality Syndrome was published by Drs. Bourru And Burot, Professors At The Medical School Of Rochefort, France. It involved a patient named  Louis Vivé. He was  twenty-two years old when he came under treatment . Louis, under the Mesmeric State  manifested six distinct personalities. Each personality had its own set of muscle contractions and lack of certain bodily sensations. Each personality had its own individual cluster of memories. 

 Each Personality was linked with a particular period of Louis's life, and significantly held memories ONLY for that period. However, the memories of one Personality overlapped the memories of four of the others. 

As to the characteristics of the various Personalities, Personality 1 was violent and Uncontrollable; Personalities 2 and 3 were quiet and well educated;  Personality 4 was shy, childlike in speech. This Personality also had the skills of a Tailor but with little education.  Personality 5 was submissive,youthful, and well educated. 

On the whole, Personality 6 seemed the best balanced of them all. This Personality manifested good character, average education, and good physical strength. What was highly significant is that this Personality possessed a memory for most of the events of Louis' life. 
Bourru And Burot, outlined their treatment in the classic book, Variations De La Personnalité (1888). 
Moving nearer to the twentieth century, Morton Prince whose work was published widely and was eventually part of the data compiled by The Society for Psychical Research in 1901 worked with a woman described as, Miss Beauchamp. In fact, her real name was Clara Norton Fowler.
Apparently this lady had three Principal Personalities. Personality number one was called, 'The Saint'. She was religious, quiet, gentle, and somewhat emotionally needy. On the other hand, Personality number two was called, 'The Woman'. Prince described her as a Realist, a strong person, quick to anger, and self-reliant. The third Personality was, 'Sally'. She was mischievous, bouncy, and irresponsible.
What is of greatest importance is that Sally was ALWAYS CO-CONSCIOUS at the same time the other personalities manifested. 
It is not my purpose in this blog to discuss the various MEDICAL theories concerning these Multiple Personality States, nor the various treatments which sought to integrate them. I have simply tried to show the massive publicity and effect such phenomena had on the Victorian Consciousness and how this permeated the Victorian novels I shall discuss.
When I began my research at University, I was told by my Professor, "You must read IN THE PERIOD until you hear the voices speak."
This is what I am trying to do. Trying to saturate my blog readers with the components of the Victorian Consciousness. In that way, the novels will more easily be apprehended.
I hope you have enjoyed the blog.
Any comments?
Picture Credits
1. Commons
2. Wikimedia commons/MO
3. Commons
4.        ibid
5.        ibid

Wednesday, 29 December 2010


In future posts I shall comment on the fact that despite the wrigglings of Evolutionists NO undisputed TRANSITIONAL FORMS which link the various member of the Animal (or Plant) Kingdoms together exist. There are only MISSING LINKS. No convincing evidence has been supplied that proves Birds have evolved from reptiles, or Humans have evolved from some ancestor to the Great Apes.

But that is not my focus here. I am going to centre on the idea advanced by Evolutionists that MUTATIONS have produced a change from an original single-celled organism, right through to the variety of life we see around us including Modern Man.

What then is meant by MUTATIONS. It simply means CHANGE. But change of what?

As I have shown in previous posts, within every cell of the body of any organism there are what are called genes and chromosomes. . Such determine what we are, a  man, a fish, whether tall or short.

So if the genes MUTATE or change and IF the changes are passed on and IF the changes are significant enough to produce different charactetistics, even different structures and IF the changes pass through an entire population then maybe the Evolutionists have a case.

Let us get hold of Darwin’s original idea, before the science of genetics was born. He believed that the blind forces of nature selected certain individuals with superior characteristics and , gradually over a long period one tiny feature at a time, an entirely different creature could eventually form. But how was this to take place?

In 1941  the Geological Society of America  formulated a new version of Darwinian evolution. They decided that genetic mutations were the answer. Mutations in the genes provided new information for the development of a new organism, taking place over a long time of course. This view became known as  Neo-Darwinianism

But of course, this is the crux of the whole matter.  Evolution, to mean anything at all, as opposed to Variation implies MAJOR transformations. Ultimately, something like a fish over eons of time changing into a human.

Well do Mutations actually take place within human or animal cells? Definitely, yes!

But, to what extent and are they beneficial? Do we really have evidence that mutations within the cells are sufficient to produce from a single-celled organism a marine invertebrate, then a fish, then an amphibian, then a reptile, then a mammal, then an ape-like ancestor then a person?   These truly major  changes must have occurred if evolution really accounts for the variety of life on this planet.
What must happen?
The genetic code in the cell must be altered in some way. It must MUTATE. But how? Information must be ADDED to the genetic code within the cell of one creature to change it into another. Remember the genes contain information, similar to a computer chip. This information is coded and specific to each creature. Therefore, the ADDITIONAL INFORMATION has to come from somewhere outside the cells of the original creature. In other words for a fin to become a leg the genes must first have the information and then issue the instructions to the body to create the leg.
On the left a fanciful creature.
‘Ah!’ The Evolutionist exclaims this is where MUTATIONS come in. But does it?
The slight changes in the copying mechanism of the genes produces the necessary alterations in the structure. The DNA within the cell carries the genetic information to form the individual. This DNA is inherited from the parents. If the DNA does not change, a human will remain a human, a whale, will remain a whale.
As I have said, Mutations do take place. With what result?
NEVER ONCE has a helpful mutation been observed. Mutations usually CAUSE deterioration of some sort, rather than improvement.
Let us  illustrate  two examples of Mutations in creatures other than man and then look at the harmful results of Mutations in humans.
First the Fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. For decades scientists have been bombarding thousands of fruitflies with radiation. This was to induce mutations in rapid time
 What was the result? Mutations did take place for sure, but of what nature?
Fruitflies were produced with eyes appearing in the wrong places, with four wings instead of two. Unfortunately, the second set was not usable and made it more difficult for the flies to fly. Other mutations appeared, all of which were catastrophic to the fruitfly. One fact remained. THE FRUITFLY WAS STILL A FRUITFLY. It had not changed into something else.

On the left the fruitfly after the radiation experiments.

One thing must be remembered.

This is an example of INDUCED MUTATION.

Now let us look at what happens to a creature when a Mutation (a copying fault in the genes) occurs. This takes place not in the laboratory but in Nature. Many of these Mutated Snakes are Albinos which makes them an easy target for predators..

A further problem for such snakes is that the two heads frequently attack each other. Clearly the life-span of such creatures is severely cut down.

 So once more Mutations are harmful, not beneficial  and do NOT give rise to new animals.

Turning our attention now to humans. We find the same situation. I am not going to illustrate this with distasteful images. Rather, I shall merely comment on the harmful effects of human Cellular Mutation. For the sake of simplicity let us call them Copying Faults..
In humans there is one equivocally beneficial mutation, out of 4,000 devastating mutations. This is  sickle cell anemia. It is inherited mainly in individuals of African descent. It may provide a  positive resistance to those areas in Africa, where malaria is endemic, but only in such places. Overall, however such a condition can result in the obstruction of  blood vessels and causes pain and ultimately, death to the internal. Organs.
In general human Mutations are responsible for a host of diseases including: heart disease; aggressive prostate cancer; certain forms of brain disease; autism; some migraines;  breast cancer, to name a few.
Queen Victoria of England  was a carrier of  hemophilia, a mutational disease which prevents blood from clotting normally.

Hemophilia is characterized by the inability to properly form blood clots. Until recently, hemophilia was untreatable, and only a few hemophiliacs survived to reproductive age because any small cut or internal hemorrhaging after even a minor bruise were fatal. Now hemophilia is treated with blood transfusions and infusions of a blood derived substance known as anti-hemophilic factor.
Hemophilia became known as the “Royal disease” because it spread to the royal families of Europe through Victoria’s descendants.
Queen Victoria’s son Leopold’s family. His daughter, Alice of Athlone, had one hemophilic son (Rupert). Victoria’s youngest child, Beatrice, gave birth to one daughter, one normal son, and two hemophilic sons. Queen Victoria’s third child, Alice, passed hemophilia to the German and Russian imperial families.
There was further transmission through the Royal families descended from Queen Victoria, but we need not go on.
For our own sanity we need to keep Challenging Assumptions, particularly one as deceptive and all pervading, such as Evolution.
I hope you enjoyed the Blog.
Any Comments?

Picture Credits

1. Commons
2.     ibid
3. www.
4. Commons
5.         ibid

Tuesday, 28 December 2010


It seems to me that there is a Spiritual Component in the nature of men and women. No matter how this is assailed it surfaces again and again.

In previous Posts I have tried to show that the modern Evolutionary Synthesis has tried, UNSUCCESSFULLY, to reduce human life to nothing more than crass, materialistic components. In short that there are no Spiritual or non material forces within human nature.

I have thus attempted to establish that the attacks on the Spiritual Nature of man have been shown to be deficient. Previously, I have indicated that in the Victorian era such attacks resulted in the resurgence of man's Spiritual Quest. This Spiritual Quest manifested itself in different forms.

Let us look at the way the Victorian Consciousness was formed by the exploration of MESMERISM and later its close relative, ANIMAL MAGNETISM. In later Posts I shall extend the discussion to include other pursuits of the Spiritual. Remember that this paves the way for the deeper understanding of the Victorian novelists. They included in their novels what they believed to be true.

First, a little background on Mesmerism.

Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) was an Austrian Physician and a friend of Mozart was a renowned Austrian physician and a personal friend of Mozart. He asserted that a  superfine, invisible fluid penetrated all nature, incluing the human body. The major cause of disease resulted from a blockage to the free flow of this fluid.

Mesmer ( picture left) also contended that this fluid was closely related to Magnetism. Therefore, if magnets were used correctly then the flow of this invisible fluid could be increased and the health of the subject would be restored. In time, Mesmer realised that this 'fluid' could be directed by touching the patient or by eye contact alone.

Often, during the course of the treatment, the subject would exhibit seizures, fainting fits, trances and give out wild screaming.  But Mesmer concluded that this was part of the blockage clearing process. Mesmer and his fellow practitiioner  believed that when the Mesmerist moved his hands in front of the patient, a physical force of some sort passed between the subject and the Mesmerist. Consequently physical effects took place in the patient's body.

Mesmerism was not a novelty. Such was its influence that it spread like wildfire throughout Europe in the 19th century and in England. Without a doubt, Mesmerism penetrated and helped mould the Victorian Consciousness.

But aside from curing illness, other effects were produced by the practice. Apparently, once in a Mesmerised state some individuals manifested psychic phenomena, such as clairvoyance, prophecy and the elimination of bodily sensations.

In Victorian England Mesmerism permeated the Consciousness to such an extent that in the 1840s literally hundreds of wandering Mesmerists travelled throughout the country exhibiting Mesmeric phenomena in front of paying audiences. In addition public shows were  advertised to attract clients who would pay large sums for private treatment.

During the public demonstrations it was vital to prove that the subject (usually a woman) was not faking. It had to be established that the normal senses of perception were gone.

To achieve this assertion, pistols were fired near the subject's ears, the skin was pricked with needles, smelling salts were waved beneath the subject's nostrils. Some Mesmerists went further. They poured acid onto the skin, knives were thrust under the fingernails, electric shocks were applied, and sometimes vinegar, soap, and even ammonia were placed in the mouth of the mesmerised subject. It was big business and was highly publicised and acclaimed throughout England. 

Eventually, Mesmerism entered the Public Consciousness in a more respectable way.

In 1842 a barrister, William Topham, placed a 42 year old Nottinghamshire labourer, James Wombell, in a Mesmeric Trance, in which the patient reached a state of complete insensibility. The Mesmerist was present whilst a surgeon amputated Wombell's leg at the thigh. 

This received massive publicity and it was stated that during this horrendous operation the patient showed no signs of pain. After the surgery Wombell lived for another thirty years without any apparent ill effects.

This and similar cases were widely publicised and Mesmerism permeated the Victorian Consciousness.  As indicated earlier I shall deal with aspects of Mesmerism when I discuss Bulwer Lytton's A Strange Story  written in 1862.

Mesmerism was related to a similar concept, Animal Magnetism.

This practice was viewed by many as equivalent to Mesmerism. It also received massive publicity and attained great popularity in Victorian England. The foremost advocate of Animal Magnetism was a Dr John Bell. He lectured and practiced in London, Dublin, Bristol, Gloucester, Worcester, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Shrewsbury, Chester, Liverpool, Manchester and various other places throughout England.

Bell claimed to be able to place a person in a Magnetised State and then cure a host of diseases. He also seemed able to induce a Sleep-walking state, and whilst under the influence the subject could eat, drink, walk, sing, and play various musical instruments. Bell also claimed to be able to Magnetise rivers, streams, trees, and other objects. This trancelike state, induced by Magnetism from a distance appears in the novel which I have mentioned earlier.

It seems fitting to sum up the state of things in Victorian England with the words of the famous George Bernard Shaw. He lived during this period (1856-1950) and described the era as follows.

It was a period 'addicted to table rapping, materialisation seances, clairvoyance, palmistry, crystal gazing, and the like' He went on to say that  never 'before in the history of the world did sooth-sayers, astrologers, and unregistered therapeutic specialists of all sorts flourish as they did during this half century.'

So, there we have it, but there is more to say about the Paranormal and its relation to the Victorian Consciousness. This I shall deal with in future Posts.

I hope you enjoyed this Post.

Any comments?


Picture credits

2.         ibid

Sunday, 26 December 2010


I have tried to show in earlier posts that it is important to check ones assumptions. When one turns to Science or what is alleged to be Science it is more important than ever. Let us see why. Take an example from Medicine.

In 1847, James Young Simpson, a Scots physician,  advocated the use of anæsthetics in cases of childbirth. This he argued would relieve pain and suffering. Simpson was immediately met by a torrent of opposition. The roots of this hostility went as far back as the sixteenth century. For, in 1591, Eufame Macalyane, a lady of rank, sought the aid of  a woman named Agnes Sampson for the relief of pain consequent at the time of birth of her two sons. As a result Macalyane  was burned alive on the Castle Hill of Edinburgh.


What was the reason for this barbarism?  It was derived from wrong religious assumptions. From pulpit after pulpit Simpson's use of chloroform was denounced as both ungodly and a violation of Scripture. Biblical texts were used to declare that the use of chloroform in this way was an attempt to bypass the so called "primeval curse on women."

Simpson countered by quoting the second chapter of Genesis, which records the creation of Eve from the rib of Adam. He stated it as the record of the first surgical operation ever performed, during which God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam. In short, God was performing the first painless operation. Even so a Doctor writing in The Lancet argued against the use of aneasthetics and challenged the Biblical interpretation that Simpson had offered.

Forgetting the religious prejudice against anaesthetics medical opposition was also vociferous. The position of some members of the scientific and medical fraternity can be seen in the attitude of John B. Porter ( 1810-69) an American Army surgeon. He distrusted all anaesthetics and  prohibited their use wherever he had  medical command. Porter assumed that  anaesthetic agents would delay wound-healing and increase the risk of haemorrhage. With these assumptions in mind,  Porter claimed therefore, that inhaling ether vapour to knock a soldier out was highly dangerous. He believed that breathing in the anaesthetic tended to poison the patient's blood, damage or weaken muscle contraction and seriously affect the nervous system. His assumptions caused him to make ridiculous statements. For example, he alleged in print that hospital gangrene hadn't even existed before the ill-judged introduction of anaesthesia.

But there was even more to it than that. Despite the horrific agony experienced by a wounded patient as he submitted to the knife. The opposition to painless surgery was also a reflection of the prevailing military ethos of tough masculinity. Fit young soldiers supposedly did not need - and might even become effeminate - by the use of such a decadent novelty.

In fact such assumptions extended beyond America.

Apparently, Sir John Hall (1795-1866) England's Chief Medical Officer in the Crimean War and Inspector General of Hospitals discouraged the use of chloroform and alleged that the 'lusty bawling' when the knife cut into the flesh was a 'powerful stimulant.' He was not alone. Many of his Medical colleagues advocated that the the crying aloud and screaming of the patients should not be suppressed. 

Although the opposition lingered for some time, it was eventually overcome when in the Crimean War (1853-56) the French reported more than 20,000 operations without a fatality.

Thankfully, this assumption that anaesthesia is wrong was eventually successfully challenged and overcome. Imagine the needless suffering one would still have to endure.

What was the result of challenging this assumption. First that horrendous suffering during serious operations (amputations etc) can now be performed without pain. Secondly, and perhaps most importantly, Science or religious assumptions are not always correct. From the perspective of this present post Scientific pronouncements regarding Evolution should be challenged.

Consequently, it should be obvious where this Post is going. Namely, that Science is fallible and one should vigilantly check its speculations. With that in mind let us proceed to certain assumptions regarding Evolution. 

For a start, consider the meaning of the words Evolution; Micro-Evolution, and Macro- Evolution. In a Biological context these words can have no meaning at all unless it is FIRST ASSUMED that all life as we know it originated from a single celled organism that itself had arisen by the sheer chaotic and chance collection of molecules. There was no guiding hand, no Creator, just chance.

Ok,  the word, EVOLUTION means 'in a long-term perspective, evolution is the descent, with modification, of different lineages from common ancestors.' This is a statement by a prominent evolutionist, Douglas Futyma. It amounts to roughly what I have stated. In some senses this seems a played down comment. But, there are other definitions, which some biologists object to. For example. The Oxford Concise Science Dictionary defined it as 
evolution: The gradual process by which the present diversity of plant and animal life arose from the earliest and most primitive organisms, which is believed to have been continuing for the past 3000 million years
It hits the point, no matter how much evolutionists might quibble.

What about MICRO-EVOLUTION? An acceptable  definition would seem to be 'Evolution resulting from a succession of relatively small genetic variations that often cause the formation of new subspecies.' In short species change due to genetic factors but, notice they only form, new subspecies. Why use 'Evolution,' Why not simply variation 

What then about MACROEVO
LUTION. It is usually defined simply as, 'Changes at or above the species level' This is a slippery term as we shall see.

This should pose no problem whatsoever, to those who doubt Darwin's notion, interpreted in many ways now by Evolutionists. The idea as defined earlier in the Oxford Concise Dictionary hits it.

One must BEWARE however of taking on assumptions. These assumptions are:

- that Darwin's notion is correct

- that the word, so called Micro Evolution (better described as VARIATION) which does result in the emergence of new species can be extrapolated to (without undisputed evidence) result in so called Macro Evolution or Evolution ABOVE the species level.

Evolutionists seek a get out when they suggest that Macro Evolution occurs AT ... the species level. Because new species do arise, this opens the door wide enough to suggest that creatures have changed from one form into another: single-celled organism to fish to amphibians to reptiles to birds etc etc etc to man.

So if the word Evolution is used in Darwin's sense, IT HAS NOT TAKEN PLACE. It certainly DOES NOT take place today.

Let us look briefly at one or two examples of Micro-Evolution (I think this word gives the wrong impression so I shall use Species- Variation instead) In NO case have the following examples, despite being offered as proofs of Evolution been anything other than VARIATION WITHIN THE SPECIES.

The Peppered Moth has been offered many many times as an example of Evolution. It is of course nothing of the sort. There are two forms of the moth. A light coloured form, typica and a dark coloured form carbonaria.

At the start of the Industrial Revolution, The light-colored form of the moth, typica, was the predominant form in England.  Shown at right the typica moth's speckled wings are easy to spot against a dark background. However, it would not be easy   to pick them out  against the light-colored bark of many trees common in England at the time.

As the Industrial Revolution progressed, alterations in the moth population appeared.  The dark-coloured carbonaria had, by 1895 in the Industrial city of Manchester reached a reported level of 98% of the moth population.
The reason for this seems fairly obvious and nothing to do with Evolution at all.  Carbonaria,  (as shown at right),  is easiest to see against a light background. 

Therefore, as the pollution from the Industrial processes blackened the buildings of Manchester the dark coloured moth was effectively hidden from predators, whilst the light coloured moth was easily seen against the same background. Consequently they were an easy target for birds. As a result their numbers declined.

This does not suggest, as Evolutionists would like it to, that any sort of Evolution was at work. It is simply that the light coloured moths were easier targets until the clean-up of industrial pollution occured.

Another example of Macro- Evolution that is cited is the Evening Primrose. Hugo de Vries discovered an unusual variant among his Evening Primrose plants. He was unable to breed this variant (which he named Oenotheria gigas) with his normal stock of Evening Primroses, Oenothera lamarckiana.

What is so important about this?

Namely, Evolutionists would have us believe that this Variation implies Evolution. This  can then be extrapolated to prove that major changes of plants (not just species) do  take place or have taken place in the distant past. Do not take on board this ASSUMPTION. 

I repeat, one does not need to deny the appearance of new species. This is a fact. To leap from there to the Evolution of new creatures, or oak trees from flowers, is however a flight of fancy.

There are other examples, which one could discuss, but the main point has been made. The ASSUMPTION that new forms, new creatures even,  can arise or have arisen is purely and simply a flight of fancy.

Keep challenging assumptions, no matter where they come from.

Hope you enjoyed the Post.

Any comments?


Picture Credits

1. Wellcome Library London
2. Wikimedia Commons
3. Wikimedia Commons