In future posts I shall comment on the fact that despite the wrigglings of Evolutionists NO undisputed TRANSITIONAL FORMS which link the various member of the Animal (or Plant) Kingdoms together exist. There are only MISSING LINKS. No convincing evidence has been supplied that proves Birds have evolved from reptiles, or Humans have evolved from some ancestor to the Great Apes.
But that is not my focus here. I am going to centre on the idea advanced by Evolutionists that MUTATIONS have produced a change from an original single-celled organism, right through to the variety of life we see around us including Modern Man.
What then is meant by MUTATIONS. It simply means CHANGE. But change of what?
As I have shown in previous posts, within every cell of the body of any organism there are what are called genes and chromosomes. . Such determine what we are, a man, a fish, whether tall or short.
So if the genes MUTATE or change and IF the changes are passed on and IF the changes are significant enough to produce different charactetistics, even different structures and IF the changes pass through an entire population then maybe the Evolutionists have a case.
Let us get hold of Darwin’s original idea, before the science of genetics was born. He believed that the blind forces of nature selected certain individuals with superior characteristics and , gradually over a long period one tiny feature at a time, an entirely different creature could eventually form. But how was this to take place?
In 1941 the Geological Society of America formulated a new version of Darwinian evolution. They decided that genetic mutations were the answer. Mutations in the genes provided new information for the development of a new organism, taking place over a long time of course. This view became known as Neo-Darwinianism
But of course, this is the crux of the whole matter. Evolution, to mean anything at all, as opposed to Variation implies MAJOR transformations. Ultimately, something like a fish over eons of time changing into a human.
Well do Mutations actually take place within human or animal cells? Definitely, yes!
But, to what extent and are they beneficial? Do we really have evidence that mutations within the cells are sufficient to produce from a single-celled organism a marine invertebrate, then a fish, then an amphibian, then a reptile, then a mammal, then an ape-like ancestor then a person? These truly major changes must have occurred if evolution really accounts for the variety of life on this planet.
What must happen?
The genetic code in the cell must be altered in some way. It must MUTATE. But how? Information must be ADDED to the genetic code within the cell of one creature to change it into another. Remember the genes contain information, similar to a computer chip. This information is coded and specific to each creature. Therefore, the ADDITIONAL INFORMATION has to come from somewhere outside the cells of the original creature. In other words for a fin to become a leg the genes must first have the information and then issue the instructions to the body to create the leg.
‘Ah!’ The Evolutionist exclaims this is where MUTATIONS come in. But does it?
The slight changes in the copying mechanism of the genes produces the necessary alterations in the structure. The DNA within the cell carries the genetic information to form the individual. This DNA is inherited from the parents. If the DNA does not change, a human will remain a human, a whale, will remain a whale.
As I have said, Mutations do take place. With what result?
NEVER ONCE has a helpful mutation been observed. Mutations usually CAUSE deterioration of some sort, rather than improvement.
Let us illustrate two examples of Mutations in creatures other than man and then look at the harmful results of Mutations in humans.
First the Fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. For decades scientists have been bombarding thousands of fruitflies with radiation. This was to induce mutations in rapid time
What was the result? Mutations did take place for sure, but of what nature?
Fruitflies were produced with eyes appearing in the wrong places, with four wings instead of two. Unfortunately, the second set was not usable and made it more difficult for the flies to fly. Other mutations appeared, all of which were catastrophic to the fruitfly. One fact remained. THE FRUITFLY WAS STILL A FRUITFLY. It had not changed into something else.
On the left the fruitfly after the radiation experiments.
One thing must be remembered.
This is an example of INDUCED MUTATION.
Now let us look at what happens to a creature when a Mutation (a copying fault in the genes) occurs. This takes place not in the laboratory but in Nature. Many of these Mutated Snakes are Albinos which makes them an easy target for predators..
A further problem for such snakes is that the two heads frequently attack each other. Clearly the life-span of such creatures is severely cut down.
So once more Mutations are harmful, not beneficial and do NOT give rise to new animals.
Turning our attention now to humans. We find the same situation. I am not going to illustrate this with distasteful images. Rather, I shall merely comment on the harmful effects of human Cellular Mutation. For the sake of simplicity let us call them Copying Faults..
In humans there is one equivocally beneficial mutation, out of 4,000 devastating mutations. This is sickle cell anemia. It is inherited mainly in individuals of African descent. It may provide a positive resistance to those areas in Africa, where malaria is endemic, but only in such places. Overall, however such a condition can result in the obstruction of blood vessels and causes pain and ultimately, death to the internal. Organs.
In general human Mutations are responsible for a host of diseases including: heart disease; aggressive prostate cancer; certain forms of brain disease; autism; some migraines; breast cancer, to name a few.
Queen Victoria of England was a carrier of hemophilia, a mutational disease which prevents blood from clotting normally.
Hemophilia is characterized by the inability to properly form blood clots. Until recently, hemophilia was untreatable, and only a few hemophiliacs survived to reproductive age because any small cut or internal hemorrhaging after even a minor bruise were fatal. Now hemophilia is treated with blood transfusions and infusions of a blood derived substance known as anti-hemophilic factor.
Hemophilia became known as the “Royal disease” because it spread to the royal families of Europe through Victoria’s descendants.
Queen Victoria’s son Leopold’s family. His daughter, Alice of Athlone, had one hemophilic son (Rupert). Victoria’s youngest child, Beatrice, gave birth to one daughter, one normal son, and two hemophilic sons. Queen Victoria’s third child, Alice, passed hemophilia to the German and Russian imperial families.
There was further transmission through the Royal families descended from Queen Victoria, but we need not go on.
Enough has been said to establish that MUTATIONS ARE NOT THE ANSWER TO THE EVOLUTIONISTS DREAM.
For our own sanity we need to keep Challenging Assumptions, particularly one as deceptive and all pervading, such as Evolution.
I hope you enjoyed the Blog.
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3. www. flickr.com
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1. Commons wikimedia.org
3. www. flickr.com
4. Commons wikimedia.org